John 6


John 6:1 After these things Jesus went over the Sea of Galilee, which is the Sea of Tiberias.  2 Then a great multitude followed Him, because they saw His signs which He performed on those who were diseased.  3 And Jesus went up on the mountain, and there He sat with His disciples.  4 Now the Passover, a feast of the Jews, was near.


Around one year has passed from the events in our previous chapter assuming the feast of John 5:1 is referring to the Passover, because it is almost time for the next Passover. Based on the other Gospel accounts, John the Baptist has been beheaded and Jesus has sent His twelve apostles out on a limited commission in Galilee (Mt. 14; Mk. 14; Lk. 9). Many other events happened before this time as well, but  these are some of the last events that happened before they left Galilee and made their way toward Bethsaida to go to a deserted place (Lk. 9:10).  The Sea of Galilee has had many names such as, Sea of Chinnereth (Num. 34:11), Sea of Chinneroth (Jos. 12:3), Lake Genessaret (Lk. 5:1), and the Sea of Tiberias as used here. It received this latter name because of the city Tiberius located on the western shore, which Herod Antipas founded around A.D. 20 and named in honor of Emperor Tiberius (F.F. Bruce - The Gospel & Epistles of John p. 142).


They left that area to get a break because the people were following them everywhere, and they did not even have time to eat (Mk. 6:31). The only quiet time they had was while they were traveling across the lake because Mark’s accounts says that the people ran to where Jesus and His disciples were going and they beat them there. So, shortly after they got off the boat, these people gathered around Jesus.


Our next verses record the miracle of Jesus feeding the 5000 men not including the woman or children. This is the only miracle, other than the resurrection, that is recorded in all four Gospels. While each account offers additional information about the details of this event, John’s account is more unique. As we examine this miracle, I will put the events in the most logical order based on all the accounts.


John 6:5 Then Jesus lifted up His eyes, and seeing a great multitude coming toward Him, He said to Philip, "Where shall we buy bread, that these may eat?"  6 But this He said to test him, for He Himself knew what He would do.  7 Philip answered Him, "Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may have a little."


I do not know with certainty if the people that ran to meet Jesus gathered around Him as soon as He docked His boat or if it was a little while afterwards, but at some point they made their way to the mountain (Jn. 6:3). John’s account is recording what happened when Jesus saw these multitudes of people coming toward Him. As they were approaching Jesus, He asked Philip, "Where shall we buy bread, that these may eat?" 


Jesus did not ask this question because He did not know the answer to it because He already knew what He was going to do. He asked him this question to test him. Philip did not have any idea how they could feed such a crowd. When Philip alludes to the sum of 200 denarii, this was most likely the amount of money they were carrying. One denarii was the typical pay for a day’s worth of work, but 200 denarii would not be enough to feed this crowd. Some commentators suggest that a danarii would be about .17 cents today. However, according a software program called “Manna Bible Maps”  it says during Jesus’ time that 84 denarii was made from a pound of silver. Based on the current market as of 9-05-07, silver is $12.15 per oz. This works out to be $194.40 per pound, which means by silver content alone, one denarii would be worth around $2.31.


The other three accounts say that Jesus taught these people and healed them at this time as well (Mt. 14:14; Mk. 6; 34; Lk. 9:11). These events happened earlier in the day, but now evening was approaching.


Mark 6:35 When the day was now far spent, His disciples came to Him and said, "This is a deserted place, and already the hour is late.  36 "Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages and buy themselves bread; for they have nothing to eat."  37 But He answered and said to them, "You give them something to eat." And they said to Him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread and give them something to eat?"  38 But He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go and see." And when they found out they said, "Five, and two fish." (See also Mt. 14:15-17; Lk. 9:12-13)


Since the day was almost over, Jesus’ disciples wanted Him to send these people away so they could go and buy themselves something to eat. But Jesus tells His disciples to feed them. They did not understand how Jesus expected them to feed this massive amount of people. Once again, we learn that they had 200 denarii in their money bag, but just as Philip had said earlier, this would not be enough money to feed all these people. While Jesus’ disciples thought about their situation, Jesus wants them to find out how many loaves they have. The first three Gospels say they had five loaves and two fish. However, John’s account gives us more detail.


John 6:8 One of His disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, said to Him,  9 "There is a lad here who has five barley loaves and two small fish, but what are they among so many?"


These five loaves and two small fish came from this little boy. These loaves were not big loaves of bread like we have today. Thayer’s Lexicons describes it this way: “ Food composed of flour mixed with water and baked; the Israelites made it in the form of an oblong or round cake, as thick as one's thumb, and as large as a plate or platter …” The common people usually made their loaves from barley. The disciples knew this was not enough food to feed all these people.


John 6:10  Then Jesus said, "Make the people sit down." Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand.


The KJV says that these people were in a desert place, which can be confusing because we understand a desert as being a place where there is little life, and there is nothing but dirt all around. The other versions translate the meaning of this Greek word better because the NKJV uses “deserted”, the NIV uses “remote place”, and the ESV uses “desolate place.” This place was a quiet uninhabited place and not only was there grass there, it was green (Mk. 6:39). Jesus had His disciples sit these people down in groups of 50 and 100 (Mk. 6:40).


John 6:11 And Jesus took the loaves, and when He had given thanks He distributed them to the disciples, and the disciples to those sitting down; and likewise of the fish, as much as they wanted.


Luke tells us that Jesus took the loaves and fishes and looked up to heaven and blessed them (Lk. 9:16). Today we usually bow our head, but Jesus was looking up when He prayed. There are many postures of prayer given in the Bible, but the posture is not important, it is the condition our heart (Mt. 6:5-8; Lk. 18:9-14). Even though Jesus was the one providing all this food by the miracle He performed, He still gave the Father thanks for it. We should learn from His example and give thanks to God for the food we eat (1 Tim. 4:4-5) and everything else in our lives (Eph. 5:18-20). Once Jesus prayed over the food, He gave it to His disciples and they gave it to the people.


John 6:12 So when they were filled, He said to His disciples, "Gather up the fragments that remain, so that nothing is lost."  13 Therefore they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves which were left over by those who had eaten.  


Jesus was able to multiply these five loaves and two fish so there was enough for all these people to eat and be full with twelve baskets full of leftovers, which was more food than they started out with. Keep in mind there was 5000 men and an unnumbered amount of women and children (Mat. 14:21). It is possible there were as many as 10,000 people fed that day by Jesus’ miracle. We are not told the exact size of the baskets, but based on the original Greek word, this was a common wicker basket they used to carry food in and it varied in size. These baskets were smaller than the large ones used when Jesus fed the 4000 in Matthew 15:32-38.


This miracle shows that God can provide more for us than we could possible need. When Jesus made sure that all the fragments of bread were saved for later, it teaches us that we should not be wasteful with what God has blessed us with.


John 6:14 Then those men, when they had seen the sign that Jesus did, said, "This is truly the Prophet who is to come into the world."


Since Jesus worked this amazing miracle with the loaves and fish, they concluded that He was the prophet Moses spoke of (Deut. 18:15-19; Acts 3:22-26).


John 6:15 Therefore when Jesus perceived that they were about to come and take Him by force to make Him king, He departed again to the mountain by Himself alone.


Within this crowd a mob began to form. Since they knew Jesus was from God and that He was the prophet Moses spoke of, they thought this would be their opportunity to fight against the Roman Empire and win. In their minds, they thought God would restore their physical kingdom to them like it was under King David, but Jesus did not come to establish a physical kingdom. He came to establish a spiritual one. He accomplished His goal, and His kingdom began on the day of Pentecost in Acts 2. He is still reigning over His spiritual kingdom right now (Acts 2:29-36). Even Jesus’ disciples thought He had come to establish a physical kingdom for the Jews all the way up to the time just before His ascension (Acts 1:6). After the day of Pentecost, they realized that Jesus’ kingdom was a spiritual one, and they preached that all Christians are a part of that kingdom today (Col. 1:13).


When Jesus read these Jews minds and what they were planning, He sent His disciples back across the Sea of Galilee. He also sent the crowds away and He went back on the mountain by Himself to pray (Mt. 14:22-23; Mk. 6:45-46). I believe this is one of the reasons the Jews stopped believing in Jesus because He would not allow them to make Him a King. Those who teach the rapture view think Jesus failed to establish an earthly kingdom because the Jews were not ready yet, which is why they say Jesus will come again and establish a kingdom on the earth for 1000 years. However, the verses I just mentioned prove that Jesus did not fail to establish His spiritual kingdom. To say the Jews were not ready to accept Him as a king is proven wrong by the event we just examined in verse 15.


John 6:16 Now when evening came, His disciples went down to the sea,  17 got into the boat, and went over the sea toward Capernaum. And it was already dark, and Jesus had not come to them.  18 Then the sea arose because a great wind was blowing.  19 So when they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and drawing near the boat; and they were afraid.


These events are also recorded in Matthew and Mark, and they offer additional information to John’s abbreviated account. Once again, I will put these events in the most logical order that makes sense to me. Jesus has sent His disciples away and apparently He told them He would meet them later. As they were on their way, a great wind came across the lake that was making it difficult for them to make headway. At that point, they were halfway across the lake somewhere around 3 ½ miles (Mt. 14:24; Mk. 6:47).


Mark’s account says Jesus saw them straining at rowing because of the strong wind (Mk. 6:48). Since Jesus was on the shore and His disciples were halfway across the lake, how did Jesus see His disciples straining at rowing on a stormy night? One of the difficulties in answering this question comes from examining the meaning of “saw” from the Greek because it can mean to see something with the eyes and it can mean to perceive by any of the senses (Strongs). For instance, when the wise men did not come back to Herod to tell him where Jesus was, “He saw that he was deceived by the wise men” (Mat. 2:16). In this instance, Herod did not literally see these men deceive him, but he observed they did not come back and perceived that they had deceived him. Another example comes from Jesus’ death on the cross. “So when the centurion and those with him, who were guarding Jesus, saw the earthquake and the things that had happened, they feared greatly, saying, "Truly this was the Son of God” (Mt. 27:54)! When these people observed the things that happened at Jesus’ death, it caused them to perceive that Jesus was the Son of God. So, Jesus could have either literally seen His disciples straining at rowing, or He could have perceived they were straining at rowing by observation. Let take a look a few possibilities of how Jesus could have perceived they were straining at rowing at this time.


Someone might say that Jesus saw their lamp on their boat and observed that it was not moving. On a calm night, a person can see a light from a great distance away, but this was a stormy night, which would make it more difficult to see the small amount of light the first century lamps were capable of producing. Even if He could see the light, it would be difficult to judge whether the boat was having trouble moving forward based on the movement of the light from that far away. Since they were rowing, it means they were traveling at a low speed, which adds to the difficulty of judging their progress from that distance. It is doubtful they would be able to keep their lamp lit during this hard wind they were fighting against. Another factor is the size of their boat.


ISBE says:

The boats were probably of a size and build similar to the few employed on the Lake today, which are between 20 and 30 ft. in length and 7 ft. in breadth (Ships and Boats).


This is backed up by archeology:

An ancient fishing boat, dating to the New Testament period, was found in the mud just north of Magdala in 1986. It was 26.5 feet long, 7.5 feet wide, and 4.5 feet deep, and was made of cedar and oak (Nelsons New Illustrated Bible Manners & Customs p. 457).


 Since these boats were not that deep, they would be splashed with water multiple times, which adds another difficulty in keeping the lamp lit. Based on this information it does not seem likely that Jesus used their lamp, if they even had one, to perceive they were straining at their rowing.


Since Jesus perceived His disciples straining at rowing, I believe the most logical way He did this was by observing the storm and the affect it was having on the water. Just about anyone could perceive this especially if they had some experience of being on the water when a storm came through. While this is a possibility based on the word “saw”, I want to point out that the word “saw” is only used a couple of times where someone perceives something from observation. Most of time it used to describe someone literally seeing something. So, I personally would say that Jesus literally saw them straining at rowing.


If our text is saying the Jesus literally saw them, I believe He used the same ability He used to see Nathanael from a long way off (Jn. 1:48). Jesus was not limited to what He could see with His human eyes. Over and over again we see how He was able to know what people were thinking before they said anything. He was able to know about events that would soon take place before they happened. So, it should not surprise us that He would be able to see His disciples in the middle of a stormy night straining at their rowing.


Next, Jesus starts walking on the water toward His disciples at the fourth watch, which is between 3 and 6 A.M. Mark’s account says that Jesus would have kept on walking past His disciples, but they saw Him and were afraid. At first, they thought He was a ghost (Mt. 14:26). If you were out in a small boat in a storm and saw someone walking on the water you might think the same thing.


John 6:20 But He said to them, "It is I; do not be afraid."


Jesus calls out to them to let them know it is Him. Matthew gives us more information of what happens at this moment.


Matthew 14:27 But immediately Jesus spoke to them, saying, "Be of good cheer! It is I; do not be afraid."  28  And Peter answered Him and said, "Lord, if it is You, command me to come to You on the water."  29 So He said, "Come." And when Peter had come down out of the boat, he walked on the water to go to Jesus.  30 But when he saw that the wind was boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink he cried out, saying, "Lord, save me!"  31 And immediately Jesus stretched out His hand and caught him, and said to him, "O you of little faith, why did you doubt?"  32 And when they got into the boat, the wind ceased.  33 Then those who were in the boat came and worshiped Him, saying, "Truly You are the Son of God."


Here is where Peter’s character shines through. He is seen many times in Scripture as acting quickly with good intentions, but many times his faithfulness does not hold out (Mt. 26:35, 69-75; Acts 15:6-11; Gal. 2:11ff). At first, Peter’s faith is strong and he is able to walk on the sea like Jesus, but he began to notice the wind and he took his focus off Jesus. This caused him to start to sink, but Jesus was there to lend him a helping hand as he cried out for the Lord to save him. This can happen to us when we lose our focus on Jesus. When we allow the world to distract us, it can cause us to lose our faith and we can sink deep in sin. But just like Peter, Jesus is ready to lend us a helping hand so we do not become overwhelmed by the world and our sin.


When Jesus gets into the boat the storm stops, and His disciples are amazed. They worship Him saying, “Truly You are the Son of God.” Mark’s account adds the following:


Mark 6:51 Then He went up into the boat to them, and the wind ceased. And they were greatly amazed in themselves beyond measure, and marveled.  52 For they had not understood about the loaves, because their heart was hardened.

Jesus’ disciples should have understood that He could override nature when He produced all that bread and fish from the small amount that was given to Him, but they did not. There are many instances like these that show how slow Jesus’ disciples were at perceiving the things He did.


John 6:21 Then they willingly received Him into the boat, and immediately the boat was at the land where they were going.


When Jesus stepped in the boat, immediately it was on the other side of the sea where they were going. This is possibly another miracle since the boat was somewhere around the middle of the sea (Jn. 6:19) and immediately they traveled around three miles from where they were to the other side.


Matthew 14:34  When they had crossed over, they came to the land of Gennesaret.  35 And when the men of that place recognized Him, they sent out into all that surrounding region, brought to Him all who were sick,  36 and begged Him that they might only touch the hem of His garment. And as many as touched it were made perfectly well.  (See Mk. 6:53-56)


Both Matthew and Mark teach that they went to Gennesaret, which is the same city identified as Chinnereth in the Old Testament (Jos. 19:35). The term “land of Gennesaret” does not necessarily mean that they anchored at the city itself because this term can include the plains of Gennesaret.


This district was a plain extending two kilometers (one mile) from the Sea of Galilee along a 5 kilometer (three mile) section of Galilee’s north shore (Nelson’s New Illustrated Dictionary p.487).


When He arrived the people recognized Him and spread the word that He was there. Everyone that was capable came to Him just to touch the hem of His garment. Mark adds that this was happening everywhere Jesus went. John’s account gives us more information than the others.


John 6:22 On the following day, when the people who were standing on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other boat there, except that one which His disciples had entered, and that Jesus had not entered the boat with His disciples, but His disciples had gone away alone --  23 however, other boats came from Tiberias, near the place where they ate bread after the Lord had given thanks --  24 when the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there, nor His disciples, they also got into boats and came to Capernaum, seeking Jesus.


Jesus had managed to get away from these Jews during the middle of the night. They saw Jesus’ disciples leave in their boat, which was the only boat there, but they knew Jesus did not go with them. The next day, they began to look for Jesus but they could not find Him. That same day some boats came from Tiberias. James Coffman makes the following observation about these boats: “John's mention of the boats from Tiberius in this place is a reference to taxi boats which, after the storm subsided, had gone to Bethsaida Julius in search of fares” (Commentary on John). This idea is also backed up by the ISBE, “Bethsaida at the northern end of the Lake and Tarichea at the southern end were great centers of the trade” (Ships and Boats). Since Bethsaida was a popular trading place it makes sense that boats would come in and out of that place regularly. Whether these boats from Tiberias were taxi boats or not, these Jews used them to go find Jesus at Capernaum.


John 6:25 And when they found Him on the other side of the sea, they said to Him, "Rabbi, when did You come here?"


Eventually they found Jesus in the Synagogue in Capernaum (Jn. 6:59), and the first thing they wanted to know was when Jesus got there. They did not know how Jesus had left without them knowing or how He left so they hoped Jesus would satisfy their curiosity. Instead, Jesus is going to rebuke them because their motive to seek Him out was wrong.


John 6:26 Jesus answered them and said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, you seek Me, not because you saw the signs, but because you ate of the loaves and were filled.  27 "Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to everlasting life, which the Son of Man will give you, because God the Father has set His seal on Him."


These Jews had missed the spiritual message of Jesus’ miracle of the fish and loves. All they could understand was their physical needs had been met, and they were seeking after Jesus to continue to take care of their physical needs. If Jesus wanted to, He could have kept feeding people and increased His following, but He was not interested in huge crowds. He just wanted people who were willing to open their hearts to the truth and understand that He was primarily there to provide for their spiritual needs.


We see this attitude in the religious world and even sometimes in the church today. Some will only go to a place of worship as long as it fulfills their needs. If they do not like the singing or if the preacher steps on their toes one too many times, then they go and find another place to worship. Many today have forgotten that the purpose for worship is to worship God and to be pleasing to Him. If the truth is being taught from the Word of God and it steps on our toes, we should not run away from the message. Instead, we should take it to heart and make a change in our life. As Christians, we have to look at the spiritual benefits and not the physical ones.


When Jesus said “Do not labor for the food which perishes,” He is not saying that we should not work for our physical food because God commands us to (2 Thes. 3:10; Gen. 2:15; 3:17-19). In this statement, He is teaching these Jews that the most important thing in life is not food or material things. Instead, it is taking care of your spiritual needs that lead to everlasting life. Jesus is the one that provides that spiritual food through the Word of God (Mt. 4:4; Job 23:12). He taught His disciples about this kind of spiritual food earlier when He was at the well (Jn. 4:32-34).


When a king would seal a document it showed that the document was authorized by the king and no one could change what it said. It also proved that the document came from the king. In a similar way, the Father put His seal on Jesus because He came from the Father and everything He spoke was authorized by the Father. Nothing can change the truth that Jesus spoke, which is why He is the only way we have access to the Father (Jn. 14:6).


Jesus said that we must labor for that spiritual food that brings about eternal life, which teaches against the false doctrine that we are saved by faith alone (Jas. 2: 17, 22, 24). The works being spoken of in our verse is not talking about works where we earn or deserve something. No, it is talking about obedient works. God has provided us with His Word and His plan of salvation, and we must accept it by obeying what He has told us to do.


John 6:28 Then they said to Him, "What shall we do, that we may work the works of God?"  29 Jesus answered and said to them, "This is the work of God, that you believe in Him whom He sent."


Now these Jews know that they must work for that food that brings about eternal salvation, which is why they want to know what they must do to obtain that salvation. Our text clearly shows the difference between the works of God and the works of man. We cannot be justified by the works of man, but the works of God are absolutely necessary.


Some in the religious world claim there is nothing we can do to be saved. These verses teach otherwise. Jesus clearly teaches that believing on Him is a work of God. If there are no works involved in our salvation, then we must conclude that it does not require belief to be saved. However, we know this is false because the Bible teaches over and over again that we must believe to be saved. Paul also refers to the work of our faith in 2 Thessalonians 1:2-3.


Usually the word “believe” or “faith” is used as a synecdoche. This word means “A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part…” ( In other words, belief and faith includes everything involved for someone to be saved, which includes repentance, confessing Jesus as Lord, and water baptism. James makes it clear that belief alone will not save a person, “You see then that a man is justified by works, and not by faith only” (Jas. 2:24).


Many in the religious world who misunderstand the difference between works of merit and works of God will say that baptism cannot be a part of our salvation because it is a work of man. However, this is not true.


Colossians 2:11 In Him you were also circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ,  12 buried with Him in baptism, in which you also were raised with Him through faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead.


When we submit ourselves to water baptism, we are simply obeying God’s command and doing what He said is necessary for our salvation. Paul teaches that when we go down into the watery grave of baptism, it is by our faith in the working of God that we are being buried with Christ for the forgiveness of our sins (Col. 2:13; Acts 2:38; 22:16). So, what happens to us at baptism is a work of God and not a work of man or a work of merit. Just as faith is a work of God, so is baptism.


John 6:30 Therefore they said to Him, "What sign will You perform then, that we may see it and believe You? What work will You do?  31 "Our fathers ate the manna in the desert; as it is written, 'He gave them bread from heaven to eat.' "  32 Then Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, Moses did not give you the bread from heaven, but My Father gives you the true bread from heaven.  33 "For the bread of God is He who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world."  34 Then they said to Him, "Lord, give us this bread always."


These Jews were not satisfied with the miracle of the fish and loaves. They wanted more proof that Jesus was the Messiah. They began to quote the Scripture found in Nehemiah 9:15 or Psalm 78:24 dealing with the manna that came out of heaven. Apparently, they wanted Jesus to do the same and then they would believe. However, Jesus is not going to grant their request even though He could. Instead, He corrects them on two different errors.


First, they were claiming Moses as the one who provided them the manna, but Jesus tells them that it was the Father and not Moses. Second, He teaches them that the manna is not the true bread from heaven because it was only temporary and perishable (Ex. 16:20).


The true bread of heaven is Jesus Himself, and He was sent down from heaven to give eternal life to the world, which means to everyone (Jn. 10:10). Jesus is the antitype of the manna. The manna was only for the Jews and it sustained their physical needs. However, Jesus was given for all, and He will sustain the spiritual needs of those who follow Him. The manna was perishable, but Jesus is everlasting, and He makes it possible for everyone to have eternal life that does the works of God. Similar to the woman at the well in John 4, they say, "Lord, give us this bread always."


John 6:35 And Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to Me shall never hunger, and he who believes in Me shall never thirst.  36 "But I said to you that you have seen Me and yet do not believe.  37 "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.  38 "For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.  39 "This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day.  40 "And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day."


Here Jesus makes one of the seven great “I am” statements in the Gospel of John in which He claims “I am the bread of life.” Jesus is trying to teach them who He is and what He has to offer. He tells them they must come to Him, which means we must choose to follow Jesus, and He tells them they must believe. As we have already discussed, this is not just mere belief or faith only, it is an obedient faith. When He says this will cause a person to never be hungry or thirty again, He is talking about the spiritual just like He did with the woman at the well in John 4. However, these Jews, like the woman at the well, have their minds on the physical and we will see that they do not understand what Jesus is talking about.


In verse 36, Jesus is referring back to verse 26. These Jews had seen the miracles Jesus had done including the feeding of the 5000. Even though they had seen these things with their eyes, they still had not understood that He was the Son of God. These miracles proved this (Acts 2:22; Jn. 11:40ff), but their senses were dull in perceiving it (Mt. 13:15).


Verse 37 is not teaching the false doctrine once saved always saved. When Jesus says He will not cast out those that come to Him, He is talking about those who have become His disciples and who choose to stay with Him. This idea is illustrated in Romans 11 where Paul teaches that the unbelieving Jew was cut off from the root, which is referring to Jesus, and the Gentile was allowed to be grafted into that root. However, Paul warns them not to boast about this and warns them that God can remove them from the root once they have been grafted in. Paul says: “For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either. Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off” (Rom. 11:21-22). Also, Jesus compares Himself to a vine in John 15 and specifically says, “If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned” (Jn. 15:6). While we should take great comfort in knowing that Jesus will not cast us out or cut us off while we faithfully follow Him, we should not be fooled into believing the false doctrine once saved always saved.


Verse 38 confirms once again that Jesus has come by the authority of the Father to carry out His will and not His own. 


In verses 39 and 40, Jesus claims God as being His Father again, and He is reaffirming that all those who will come to Him believing and choose to remain faithful will have everlasting life because it is the Father’s will. These faithful followers will be raised up on the last day, which is the Day of Judgment.  


John 6:41 The Jews then complained about Him, because He said, "I am the bread which came down from heaven."  42 And they said, "Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How is it then that He says, 'I have come down from heaven'?"


After Jesus made this bold claim, these Jews began to discuss what He said, and they did not like it. Some of the Jews were apparently from Nazareth because they knew that Jesus was the son of a lowly carpenter. In their minds, the coming Messiah was going to be someone great and majestic who would come in and reestablish a physical kingdom for the Jews, but Jesus did not fit their description. They could not see how a poor man like Jesus who was raised in a poor town could possibly be from God or be that bread which came down from heaven. They were not allowing Jesus’ miracles to serve as proof. Instead, they were allowing their prejudgment of Him to speak louder than His miracles.


There are many who are guilty of this today when it comes to rightly dividing the Word of God. Some people have their preconceived ideas on what they believe on certain topics, and they are not willing to look at all the Scriptures about that topic with an open mind. Instead, they want to believe what they have already been taught or what they believe is true, and they will not consider any Scriptures or logical thoughts that show their view to be wrong. As Christians, we must approach the Word of God with an open mind and be willing to reconsider any given topic and be willing to change our view if new evidence shows that we are wrong.


John 6:43 Jesus therefore answered and said to them, "Do not murmur among yourselves.  44 "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day.  45 "It is written in the prophets, 'And they shall all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to Me.  46 "Not that anyone has seen the Father, except He who is from God; He has seen the Father.


Jesus knows exactly what these men are murmuring about and He rebukes them. He lets them know that no one can come to Him unless the Father draws them. Those who teach Calvinism would say this is a proof text for irresistible grace and predestination because the Father will draw those that will be saved and will not draw those that are destined to be lost. However, this is not true because we have a free will to choose whom we will serve (Jos. 24:15) and to accept God’s salvation (Rev. 22:17). God does not force us to be a Christian, nor does He show partiality by saving one and condemning another (Rom. 2:11).


The next verse shows exactly how God draws people to Himself. He draws them through hearing the Word of God and by them learning what it says, which is exactly what Isaiah 54:13 and Jeremiah 31:31-34 prophesied. The Word of God is the power of God to salvation (Rom. 1:16). Without it we cannot learn how to be saved or be drawn by God (Rom. 10:14). It is by the Word of God that we are called (2 Thes. 2:14).


Once again, Jesus declares His Deity and close relationship with the Father because He came from the Father and has seen Him as He is. No one else on the earth has seen Him in His true form.


John 6:47 "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me has everlasting life.  48 "I am the bread of life.  49 "Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and are dead.  50 "This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that one may eat of it and not die.  51 "I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world."


Once again, this shows the necessity of belief in order to have everlasting life, and that Jesus is the bread of life. The manna the Jews ate in the wilderness sustained them physically, but all of them died. However, when we feed partake of Jesus, we will be sustained spiritually and we will live forever. Jesus stresses the point that He is that living bread which came down from heaven. He also predicts how He will give up His life for the world so that all will be able to have the choice to have eternal life.


John 6:52 The Jews therefore quarreled among themselves, saying, "How can this Man give us His flesh to eat?"  53 Then Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in you.  54 "Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.  55 "For My flesh is food indeed, and My blood is drink indeed.  56 "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him.  57 "As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who feeds on Me will live because of Me.  58 "This is the bread which came down from heaven -- not as your fathers ate the manna, and are dead. He who eats this bread will live forever."  59 These things He said in the synagogue as He taught in Capernaum.


The Jews were not happy with Jesus’ words because they understood them as being literal instead of spiritual. They thought Jesus was saying they would have to eat His flesh. As they quarreled among themselves, Jesus added more flame to the fire by saying not only do you have to eat of my flesh, you have to drink of my blood, and only then will you be able to abide in Me and be able to live. When we make this out to be literal, we can understand the reason these Jews were so upset by what Jesus was saying.


Of course Jesus was saying all of this in a figurative way. We must recognize that Jesus’ death on the cross happened so we could benefit from it and live our lives according to God’s Word. For instance, Jesus said, “He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him” (Jn. 6:56).  However in John 15:7,10 Jesus said that we can abide in Him by letting His words abide in us and by keeping His commandments (See also: 1 Jn. 2:6; 3:24).  Jesus said, “This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that one may eat of it and not die” (Jn. 6:50). Yet Jesus also said, “If anyone keeps My word he shall never see death” (Jn. 8:51).  When we compare these verses, we can surmise that eating of Jesus’ flesh and drinking His blood means to believe on Him and the great sacrifice He made on the cross for us and how we are to keep His commandments. At the end of this chapter, Jesus makes it clear that eating His flesh and drinking His blood are equivalent to receiving His Word when He says, “It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and they are life” (Jn.6:63).


Those in the Catholic Church think our verses in John 6 are referring to the Lord’s Supper. When their priest bless the bread and the fruit of the vine, they teach that they literally become the flesh and blood of Jesus.


In the most blessed sacrament of the Eucharist, "the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ and, therefore, the whole Christ is truly, really, and substantially contained." ...  It is by the conversion of the bread and wine into Christ's body and blood that Christ becomes present in this sacrament ...  It has always been the conviction of the Church of God, and this holy Council (the Council of Trent) now declares again, that by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood.  This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation (Catechism of the Catholic Church (Liguori, Missouri: Liguori Publishing, 1994), p. 346-347).


This false doctrine is called transubstantiation. Even when Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper, He called the bread His body and the fruit of the vine His blood, but He did not mean it was literally His flesh or blood. He meant it symbolically. Jesus said, “I am the door of the sheep” (Jn.10:7). Is He a literal door for literal sheep? Of course not! He was talking symbolically just like He was talking symbolically about the Lord’s Supper. Think about this, if we are literally eating Jesus’ flesh and drinking His blood, then all Christian are cannibals. The false doctrine of "transubstantiation” is not supported by the Scriptures. I do not believe our text in John 6 is talking about the Lord’s Supper specifically, but it certainly would include it since Jesus is telling us to keep His commandments.


John 6:60 Therefore many of His disciples, when they heard this, said, "This is a hard saying; who can understand it?"  61 When Jesus knew in Himself that His disciples complained about this, He said to them, "Does this offend you?  62 "What then if you should see the Son of Man ascend where He was before?  63 "It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and they are life.  64 "But there are some of you who do not believe." For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who did not believe, and who would betray Him.  65 And He said, "Therefore I have said to you that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted to him by My Father."  66 From that time many of His disciples went back and walked with Him no more.


Many of those who followed Jesus and witnessed the miracles He did were stumped by what He said. They considered it a hard saying. Now this could mean two things, it was too hard to comprehend or it was too hard to accept. There are many saying that Jesus taught throughout His ministry that people today consider to be too hard to accept such as His teachings on divorce and remarriage, the exclusiveness of His one church, the roles of men and women, that baptism is essential for salvation, etc.


Jesus did not waver on what He taught or try to make it work so He did not offend anyone. He simple preached the truth, which should be the same attitude all Christians should have as they teach those around them because there is no need to apologize for the truth or to compromise it. Likewise, preachers should not preach only on safe issues they know will not offend anyone. Instead, they must preach the whole counsel of God, and if they lose their job over preaching the truth, then so be it.


Jesus knew what these men were saying and asked them, "Does this offend you?” These Jews were looking for an earthly king like David and Jesus was not matching up to their expectations. If Jesus’ words offended them and made them stumble, then what is going to happen when they see Him die and then ascend back to His Father? Again, this would not fit with their idea of the Messiah.


In verse 63, He makes it clear that everything He has just said has to do with the spiritual and not the flesh because the flesh will profit nothing, but the spirit will give us life by believing and obeying God’s Word.


Jesus knew the hearts of those who were following Him, and He knew that many of them did not believe. They were only following Him because of the signs and miracles He did. Since these people had not been drawn to Him by the truth, many of them turned away and stopped following Jesus. This hard saying separated the true believers from the fake ones, and God’s truth still does that today. There have been many who were interested in Jesus until His teachings conflicted with their lifestyle or an event that happened in their life, which has caused many to turn away from God and follow Him no more.


John 6:67 Then Jesus said to the twelve, "Do you also want to go away?"  68 But Simon Peter answered Him, "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life.  69 "Also we have come to believe and know that You are the Christ, the Son of the living God."


I can imagine being one of the twelve apostles watching as these people got up and walked away from Jesus. Seeing that would be enough to cause some to be tempted to follow the crowd. Then Jesus asked them, “Do you also want to go away?”  Since Jesus asked this question, it proves we have a choice to either follow Jesus or not to follow Him. There was no irresistible grace or overwhelming power that was keeping the apostles there. If they had walked away, others would have been chosen and God’s plan would have continued.


Answering for all of them Peter said they had no one else they could go to that has the words of eternal life. They believed and knew that Jesus was the Son of the living God, which separated them from the others that walked away from Jesus that day.


John 6:70 Jesus answered them, "Did I not choose you, the twelve, and one of you is a devil?"  71 He spoke of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, for it was he who would betray Him, being one of the twelve.


Even though Peter spoke for the twelve, Jesus knew that Judas would later betray Him for thirty silver pieces. At this point, the disciples had no idea of whom He was talking about. Now a person might wonder why Jesus picked Judas to be one of His apostles. While I cannot be dogmatic in my answer, I lean toward the idea that He chose him because He knew Judas would betray Him and fulfill the prophecy. It is important to understand that Jesus did not make Judas do anything. He simply used him to carry out what was already in his heart just as God used Joseph’s brothers to bring about the preservation of the Jews (Gen. 50:20).